Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the “以房养老”是本好经不要被“坏和尚”念歪了.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
“If hearing that the CEO of Apple is gay can help someone struggling to come to terms with who he or she is, or bring comfort to anyone who feels alone, or inspire people to insist on their equality, then it’s worth the trade-off with my own privacy,” he wrote in Bloomberg Businessweek in October.
"The scenes in the TV adaptation are beautiful, and also consistent with the original work," a Douban user Banchengyansha said.
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
‘Homeland’ This Showtime espionage thriller seemed destined for irrelevance after Brody (Damian Lewis) was finally killed at the end of Season 3. Season 4 has so far turned out to be remarkably vital and exhilarating without him, this time by pitting Carrie (Claire Danes) against a beautiful, deceitful Pakistani intelligence officer, Tasneem, (Nimrat Kaur).
On Sunday, the night before the Doodle debuted, Zhang told Newsday she was "excited" by the big win, but said she wouldn't be awake when her art first went online at midnight.
Only nine further schools participated in all four rankings. They are ranked between third place (IE Business School) and 38th (Politecnico di Milano School of Management).
Among them, IT/Internet/telecommunications/electronics industries absorb nearly 30% 2016 graduates for the rapid development.
She suffered anorexia while in an abusive relationship after she arrived in Los Angeles.
While Switzerland’s University of St Gallen retains the top spot, French and British business schools, with 24 and 18 programmes respectively, are the backbone of the 2017 FT ranking of 95 programmes around the world. More than half of UK schools move up the ranking, compared with one in France. A third of British schools rise five places, in contrast to the two-thirds of French schools that drop five or more places.
Nineteen buildings disappeared in the space of 10 seconds after being demolished by a controlled explosion in China yesterday.
Estimates vary, but the research firm IDC projects that wearable tech will exceed 19 million units this year—more than triple last year’s sales—and will soar to 111.9 million units by 2018. Credit Suisse values the industry at somewhere between $30 billion and $50 billion in the next two to four years. But before that happens, the nascent market has that pesky wouldn’t-be-caught-dead-wearing-it hurdle to clear.
The January-to-November period in the United States this year was the warmest first 11 months of any year on record for the contiguous states. And 2012 will likely surpass 1998 as the warmest year on record for the nation, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
The study is available online.